The problems with lethal injections

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The problems with lethal injections

View Media Gallery The electron flow, called tube current, is generated through an electrically heated negatively charged filament cathode and is expressed in milliamperes mA. The x-ray tube fires a beam of electrons through a high voltage vacuum tube forming x-rays that are emitted through a small opening.

X-rays are generated by engaging a high-voltage switch with the output expressed as the kilovolt peak kVp. These x-rays pass into and through human tissue creating electrically charged ions. The image intensifier collects electromagnetic particles that pass through the patient and transforms them into a usable image that can be visualized on a television monitor.

X-ray production ceases immediately when the switch is released. For this reason, radiation management in fluoroscopy is best accomplished by keeping the amount of beam-on time as short as possible. The fluoroscopic imaging chain.

View Media Gallery The C-arm facilitates optimal positioning of the fluoroscope for the practitioner to get the most favorable view, eg, posterior-anterior, oblique, and lateral views of the patient.

The control panel allows the technician to manually adjust the quality of the image or leave it to the automatic brightness control ABC. The quality of the image contrast depends on the balance between the tube voltage and current.


A higher kVp setting increases the penetrability of the x-ray beam, but reduces the contrast of the x-ray image, whereas the tube current increases both intensity and penetration. Balance of the tube current and tube voltage kVp creates the optimal contrast and image resolution.

This is usually accomplished by the ABC system, whereby the computer automatically analyzes the image contrast and makes the appropriate adjustments to the kVp and mA to achieve the best balance between contrast and brightness of the image with the lowest dose-rate to the patient.

Dose-rates are greater depending on the thickness or size of the patient. As patient size increases, image quality decreases, patient dose increases, and exposure rates to personnel increase.

The control panel also allows for magnification and collimation of the image. When transferred through matter, x-rays ionize human tissue and produce electrically charged ions that can induce molecular changes, potentially leading to somatic and genetic damage.

Radiologic nomenclature describes radiation quantities using terminology such as the absorbed dose, effective dose, equivalent dose, and Dose-area-product. The concentration of energy that is deposited locally into a tissue is called the absorbed dose. This is measured in units of gray Gy or milligray mGy.

One gray of absorbed dose is equivalent to the energy deposition of 1 joule in 1 kg of tissue mass.

The problems with lethal injections

Doses lower than 1 Gy generally do not cause notable acute effects other than slight cellular changes. Effective dose is the quantity of radiation exposure affecting people who are not in a stationary or typically uniform space.

It is the hypothetical dose received by the entire unprotected human body and poses the same health risk as the nonuniform dose received by an individual not wearing a protective apron. For the purposes of radiation protection, regulatory limits of whole-body exposures to personnel are given in terms of effective dose.Jun 19,  · This article focuses on the use of therapeutic injections (see the image below) to treat acute and chronic pain syndromes.

Discussion of this topic begins with an overview of regional anesthesia, which includes the pharmacology of frequently administered medications and basic information regarding equipment and safety. The execution of Warner, who was convicted of raping and murdering an year-old girl, was the first lethal injection in Oklahoma since Lockett.

Tennessee warned about use of controversial drug combination for lethal injections Controversial executions around the country show a three-drug combination Tennessee is prepared to use leave. A report in the Salt Lake City Tribune takes a different view of the suggestion that there have been no botched executions by firing squad since The paper reports that in September , a Utah firing squad shot Eliseo J.

Mares in the hip and abdomen and that it was "several minutes" before he was declared dead. Jul 28,  · Arizona's recent botched execution of Joseph Wood is the latest in a series of horrific events demonstrating that lethal injection is a profoundly flawed .

Jul 05,  · One sedative will be substituted for another, and prison officials said Tuesday they plan to use two other drugs never before used in executions in any state for Nevada's first lethal injection in.

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