He founded the new capital Ahmadnagar on the bank of the river Sina. After several attempts, he secured the great fortress of Daulatabad in After the death of Malik Ahmad inhis son Burhana boy of seven was, installed in his place. In the initial days of his reign, the control of the kingdom was in the hands of Mukammal Khan, an Ahmadnagar official and his son.
Qutb al-Din Aibak later added an enormous sandstone screen in front of the mosque. Although based on Iranian prototypes, the mosque was built by local craftsmen who used corbelled arches, a technique commonly used in Indian temples, but not in earlier Islamic architecture, to create the structure.
Corbelled arches are constructed by laying stone blocks on top of each other, with each block protruding slightly beyond the blocks below until they meet at the top of the archway. The iron pillar in front of the center of the central arch was taken from a temple dedicated to the Hindu deity Vishnu and erected as a trophy.
To the south of the mosque, Qutb al-Din Aibak began to construct a massive minaret The minaret is decorated with wide bands of calligraphy intermingled with floral and vegetal motifs. Iltutmish also later constructed a plain square stone tomb with a corbelled dome.
His commissioning of this tomb initiated the tradition of constructing royal tombs, which many successive Muslim rulers in India would follow. The Qutb Complex, as the original mosque and its successive additions are collectively known, was further expanded by the ambitious Sultan Ala al-Din Khalji r.
It was completed in and is pictured above on the left.
Ala al-Din Khalji also began the construction of a second massive minaret: Although it was intended to be twice the size of the minaret built by Qutb al-Din Aibak and Iltutmish, it was never completed.
By the time the Tughlaq dynasty controlled the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century, an indigenous Islamic culture was emerging in northern India.
The Tughlaqs built a massive fortified city six kilometers 3. Like the practice of building royal tombs began by Iltutmish, successive Islamic rulers would follow the Tughlaq practice and build a new capital after they came to power.
The remains of this city and the capital cities constructed by successive Tughlaq rulers are located around the outskirts of the modern city of Delhi. One of his most interesting projects was the transport of two large columns originally erected by Emperor Ashoka c. One of these pillars, known as the golden minaret, was erected beside the mosque that Firuz Shah Tughlaq built.
He also added two stories to the top of the minaret originally constructed by Qutb al-Din Aibak and Iltutmish after it was damaged by lightning. InTimur Tamerlane sacked Delhi, and it was not until the midth century that the Lodis established themselves as the last rulers of the Delhi Sultanate.
Rather than build new cities, mosques, or madrasas, as previous Islamic rulers had done, the Lodis built many tomb structures around the modern city of New Delhi. Previously, only kings and saints were buried in large mausoleums, but under the Lodi rulers, large tombs were also constructed by the nobility.
This has to do with the Lodi conception of kingship. Originally a tribal group with origins in Afghanistan, the Lodis considered a king to be first among equals, and tomb building was not considered solely as a royal prerogative.
The tombs of the Lodi sultans were octagonal, while the tombs of the Lodi nobles were square.
Lodi rule also saw the introduction of the Iranian double dome, where one dome was constructed on top of the other with a space left in between. Although almost no metalwork has survived that was produced under the patronage of the Delhi Sultanate, a distinct tradition of book production can be traced to the Delhi beginning in the 15th century.
At this time, a new style of calligraphy used in the Korans called the Bihari script emerged, with distinctive wedge-shaped letters, thick bowl-like shapes for endings, and ample space left between words. Royal painting workshops appear to have flourished under more liberal rulers but were disbanded when conservatives came to the throne.
Not many examples of illustrated manuscripts created under the Delhi Sultanates have survived, but an interesting copy of the Shahnama, or The Book of Kings, created in the midth century under Lodi rule, bares a close relationship to contemporary Jain paintings.
The imagery contrasts sharply to Persian illustrations of the Shahnama. Other more common features that appear in manuscripts during the 15th century that are based on Indian traditions include groups of people in serried rows and identical poses, narrow bands of decoration that run across the width of the composition, and bright and unusual colors that replace the modulated colors typically found in earlier Timurid painting.The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu: دہلی سلطنت ) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for .
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Art and architecture took a new direction in the Delhi Sultanate period. Fergusson describes it as a combination of Arabic and Indian styles. According to Sir John Marshall, the genius of both Hindu and Muslim craftsmen blended to achieve a unique genre of art and architecture during this time.
Art and Architecture under Delhi Sultanate One of Qutb al-Din Aibak’s first acts as the Sultan was the commissioning of a mosque— Quwwat ul-Islam, or Might of Islam, in the center of the conquered Hindu stronghold of the citadel of Delhi.
See most popular tourist places to visit in New Delhi, top things to do, shopping and nightlife in New Delhi, find entry timings, fees about various attractions in New Delhi, NCR. Photo by Arian Zwegers, CC BY Famous for: History, Architecture, Gardens, Photography.
Tickets: 30 INR for adults and INR for foreigners. Opening Timings: Open all days. Duration: 45 mins. Built in the year , Humayun’s Tomb is a monument built by Queen Haji Begum, widow of Humayun. The monument displays the inspiration of Persian architecture.