Four Types of Action Research In order to discuss the differences and commonalities between classical action research, participatory action research, applied research, and grounded action we first need to settle on specific definitions for each. Action Research The major emphasis on action research is to provide concrete solutions to issues that affect social and educational systems in a localized setting. It uses qualitative methods in natural settings to develop theories for teaching and learning. Action research is contextual, small-scale — localized — it identifies and investigates problems within a specific situation.
Comparative Similarities Action research versus traditional research Differences Research paradigms or perspectives have developed their own cultures of inquiry that describe different research processes used to observe, describe, and understand phenomena. Action, participative, and participatory action research are relatively new types of social research methods which coincide with the move from the Newtonian world to an era when quantum theory has deeply challenged the Cartesian-based philosophy in science.
The rise of a post mechanistic view within the scientific disciplines, one where the observer affects and is affected by the observed, has signified the transition from the industrial age to the age of cybernetic theory and systems thinking. These three types of research are a part of a continuum of action-oriented research processes that combine inquiry with creating direct social change and is not limited to just explanation of information or data Boga, Each reflects a different level of commitment and influence of those being studied on and in the research process.
Each also has a different purpose. The following briefly describes each research process and explores the similarities and difference between them based on the goals of the research model, the frameworks of the research including any assumptions that are made at the base level, and the level of commitment, involvement and influence of participants.
Improving practice means that the quality of the outcome of the process and products together are enhanced. A defining characteristic of AR is that the researcher initiates change based on a feeling that something needs to change to create a better human situation. The researcher provides direction toward realization and transformation of values through the process.
Ends are not defined as specific goals or objectives before hand. The researcher may act as an individual or with a team of colleagues as the facilitator of clients. The researcher improves skills and co-learns with the clients during the process.
The researcher leads the process of identifying the problem, drawing facts and opinions from the clients, and leads the group to identify gaps in understanding. There is a unified conception, but there is not a rigid division of specialized tasks or roles. The researcher and the group identify actions to take and jointly analyze results, reflect on these actions and results, and propose new courses of action.
The researcher and the clients act together to create or actualize satisfying results for change. The researcher leads the group through identifying the course of actions for diffusion, but does not necessarily engage in these actions. A wholistic appreciation of the situation to inform the narrative of the case at hand is greater than any analytical or theoretical contributions.
Several disparate processes are unified such as the development of the individual researcher, the design of the process, and the action-reflection cycle for both the researcher as an individual and with the clients.
Although this method is primarily researcher led, collaborative reflection is imperative to encompass the experience and perceptions of the clients to make modifications to other change efforts based on shared feedback from collaborative members of the group Elliott, PR is initiated by the organization of interest.
The researcher and participants collaborate actively in a loosely defined group process to study and change their social reality. Whyte, All members of the organization can participate.
Participants must have the will and resources to participate and take on active roles and directly influence defining the problem, choose the methods used to gather the data, analyze the data, prepare the findings, and create action.
Boga, Elden, The wholistic process is group led and self-organized, and adapts to changes as needed. Results are jointly prepared, and reported to those affected.Translational research involves moving knowledge and discovery gained from the basic sciences to its application in clinical and community settings.
This concept is often summarized by the phrases "bench-to-bedside" and "bedside-to-community" research . Abstract. This dissertation examined the question, "how does a traditional lecture/lab general education course compare to an online format course for developing environmental literacy in a university general education course when participatory action research (PAR) is incorporated into both courses?".
kind of research that does not use any technological process. e.g. researching solely on books and libraries. Action research " is the production of knowledge which guides practice, with changes of a given reality, which takes place as part of the research process ".Oquist, A definition of practitioner research Various definitions may be found in the literature for practitioner research, it may even be called different names ranging from participatory action research, to action research, to practitioner led inquiry, or community action research, but there are some common characteristics that distinguish it from other research methods.
The result of participatory action research is the opportunity for researchers and participants to link enhanced capacity and wisdom from action research with the ‘local theory’ from group participants in participative research to be agents of major social changes at the organizational level.